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# Net Profit Ratio (NP Ratio):

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Net profit ratio (NP ratio) expresses the relationship between net profit after taxes and sales. This ratio is a measure of the overall profitability net profit is arrived at after taking into account both the operating and non-operating items of incomes and expenses. The ratio indicates what portion of the net sales is left for the owners after all expenses have been met.

## Formula:

Following formula is used to calculate net profit ratio:

Net profit ratio = (Net profit after tax / Net sales) × 100

It is expressed in percentage. Higher the net profit ratio, higher is the profitability of the business.

## Example:

From the following information calculate net profit ratio (NP ratio)

Total sales = \$520,000; Sales returns = \$ 20,000;  Net profit \$40,000

Net sales = (520,000 – 20,000) = 500,000

Net Profit Ratio = [(40,000 / 500,000) × 100]

= 8%

## Significance:

Net profit ratio is used to measure the overall profitability and hence it is very useful to proprietors. The ratio is very useful as if the net profit is not sufficient, the firm shall not be able to achieve a satisfactory return on its investment.

This ratio also indicates the firm's capacity to face adverse economic conditions such as price competition, low demand, etc. Obviously, higher the ratio the better is the profitability. But while interpreting the ratio it should be kept in mind that the performance of profits also be seen in relation to investments or capital of the firm and not only in relation to sales.

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